Notes from my CFI Studies - Let me know if they're useful to you.


Certified Flight Instructor "Sound Bite Study Guide" (TM). (C) 2009, Brian Mork


This "Sound Bite Study Guide" is one of many study guides released under the "Sound Bite Study Guide" trademark. It was accumulated by studying pools of possible written questions published by the FAA. I like the ASA published version because they list the question, followed by a textual explanation of which answer they've chosen (the FAA doesn't publish answers). Every time I got a wrong answer, I recorded the question stub and the correct answer as a "sound bite" below. As the material accumulated, I repeatedly reviewed each line while covering the answer part with a 3x5 card. When I could get them all correct, I went and took the written. I obtained a score 97%. The method works!

CAPITALIZED phrases are specific to get the question right, indicating there is a very similar wrong answer available on the test. "Quoted" phrases are key phrases to look for; if you see them, that's the right answer for multiple questions. (*) I put asterisks by the questions I remember from my written. (**) I put double asterisk by the questions on the exam I was unsure about (I think some of these are the ones I got wrong).

Aircraft are listed in categories, classes and types.
  • Aircraft certification people use "category" to mea Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, Limited, Restricted, Experimental, Provisional and Transport. Most aircraft in general aviation are normal or utility.
  • Pilot certification people use "categoery" to mean Airplane, Gyroplanes, Helicopters, Gliders, Airship, and Balloon.
  • Aircraft classes include Single-Engine? Land, or Multi-Engine? Seaplane, etc.
  • Classes can be further divided into types. These specify the model number or model name of the aircraft. For example a Cessna 152. This aircraft is defined by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) as being in the utility category, airplane class and Cessna 152 type. A pilot needs to have a ASEL category certificate.
Some of these answers "look wrong" considering all relevant regulation. Remember, they are meant to be very written test specific, so you have to check the specific wording and possible answer selections on the specific written test question. The sound bite answers are visual recognition cues only, and sometimes they're bad teaching material. An example is reporting of an accident to NTSB. The regulatory (Part 830) answer is immediate notification. The written answer below is "10 days" - I think because the question had something to do with replies if they ask for a written report regarding the accident.


ATP requires FI recommendation only when - applying for type rating.
Night commercial ops - 3 to&lndg withing 90 days same category, class, type (if type rated)
Can carry pax w/o night currency - up to 1 HR PAST SUNSET
Aircraft lighting required - AT SUNSET
SIC can log instrument time when - controlling by reference to instruments.
Alternative airport preflight - IFR or not in vicinity
Life jackets - not within gliding distance FOR HIRE.
Inspect transponder - 24 months
Inspect ELT - 12 months
Below Class B or within Class D - 200 knot speed limit
Below 10,000 or IN class B - 250 knots speed limit
SWET31 - going south or west, fly altitudes based on MAGNETIC COURSE.
(**) Airport "destination signs" point toward -
(**) Painting on the runway - non-precision threshold markings
Solo certificate endorsed with - each make and model.
Advanced Ground Instructor - any ground training for any FLIGHT REVIEW
Class D 4nm speed limit - 200 KTS
Okay to train w/o ELT - within 50 NM
ELT needs to be inspected - every 12 months.
Flight review consists of 1 hour ground, 1 hour flight (NOT glider rule of 1 hour, 3 flights).
Emergency? Deviate from FAR to the extent required (that's all).
Recreational pilot less than 400 hours - log PIC every 180 days, or instructor log book signoff.
Recreational pilot requires logbook when - all flights
Recreational Pilot Certificate may be issued for - Airplane, Gyroplanes, and Helicopters (Think of an old HAG).
Minimum Equipment list - is a MAXIMUM list of what can be broken. 91.213(a)(3)(ii).
w/o transponder, can fly Class E below 10K, no class A, below 2500 always. Can call 1 hour prior for Class B, C, D. check this 91.215(b)(5)(B).
Private night requires 3 hours, 10 to & lndg.
Commercial 250 total, 50 dual, 100 power & PIC.
Commercial license must be at least 18 yrs.
Commercial minimum flight - 200 HOURS (50 can be in simulator)
(*) Commercial without instrument - no PEOPLE more than 50 miles or at night.
Commercial with no instrument - NO PAX at NIGHT, NO PAX more than 50 nm. (okay to carry cargo)
Required to instruct ME or helicopter - 5 hours of PIC in make and model.
Ground instructor instructs "Aeronautical Knowledge" (only!)
Every airplane: Airworthiness Certificate, Registration Certificate, applicable operations specifications (ops limits). On the exam, "approved flight manual".
crewmember defined as - person assigned to duty during flight
operational control - initiate, conduct, or terminate a flight
stopway is - designated to decelerate airplane during aborted takeoff
Minimum steady flying speed - Vs'
Flying at Vmc sufficient for - maintain heading (only)
Requirement for commercial pilot to fly solo - flight review in any aircraft rated (not necessarily airplane)
(**) To tow a glider - towed 3 flights in a glider within 12 months
(**) To tow - w/in 90 days 3 glider tows.
Can skip night time for exam? - no, must log 3 hours
(*) Class D - 2500' MSL normal top
Class G - normally overlaid by Class E at 700 or 1200' AGL but sometimes up to 14,500 MSL.
(*) Class E - victor airway 1200 AGL to 18,000' MSL.
Class C – two-way radio, transponder, encoding altimeter.
(*) Encoding transponder required - at or above 10,000 MSL (but not below 2500 AGL), Class B 30 mile cylinder, above Class C floor cylinder.
(*) Class C – two-way radio, transponder, encoding altimeter (also A, B, 30 nm, aa 10,000 MSL)
NTSB serious injury is - sever tendon damage
(*) NTSB notification when substantial damage - adversely affects aircraft performance
(*) NTSB immediate notification when - flight control malfunction
NTSB Serious injury - severe tendon damage
NTSB ACCIDENT reporting - 10 DAYS
Substantial damage requires notification when? - immediately
Operator in an ACCIDENT must file report within - 10 days
Operator in an INCIDENT must file report - ONLY IF REQUESTED.
Commerical pilot must record what flight time? - meet recent flight experience
Max speed at SATELLITE AIRPORT in Class B - 250 Knots
Commerical pilot app must have how many XC hours? - 50 hours
under the influence allowed on aircraft - medical patient, proper care
WARNING AREA - 3 nm out from coast.

VFR weather minimums. Venn Diagrams could help 91.155! Here is my attempt to capture all the rules as concisely as possible.
Class E – Every controlled airspace (C and D already captured in below 10 rule):
(*) Below 10MSL “3,1,5,2” (visualize 3 C-152 descending into clouds: flight vis sm, above, below, horizontal)
(*) At or above 10MSL “5,1,1,1” (visualize five F-111 in formation on oxygen at 10)
Class G (uncontrolled airspace) same as Class E, except
(*) At or below 1200AGL daytime or 1/2mile traffic pattern at night requirements drop to "1 mile, clear of clouds"
(*) More than 1200AGL, below 10,000 MSL "daytime vis drops to 1 sm".
Class B – "3 miles clear of clouds" (B rhymes with 3)

Special VFR visibility - 1 SM clear of clouds
Min vis for Acro - 1500 AGL and 3 MILES
utility category - limited acrobatics including spins
student pilot certificate - 24 mo (because it is a medical)
cheating on a knowledge test - 1 year penalty, plus any cert/rating suspended/revoked
instructor endorsement for knowledge test - 60 days
(*) complete a practical test - 60 days
failing a written twice, with instructor endorsement, may take it again - immediately
failing a written once, with instructor endorsement, may take it again - immediately
(*) must demonstrate spins during exam - if previously showed deficiency
Night recency not met, can carry PAX up to 1 HOUR AFTER SUNDOWN.
prior to student first solo flight - endorse student log AND certificate.
prior to solo, must receive flight instruction in - ground reference manuevers
endorsed solo (not XC) - student limited to 25 miles
Before practical test for Private Pilot, required - 3 hr XC dual, 5 hr XC total.
ATP instruction duty limit - 36 hours in 7 days.
Private XC - 3 hr dual, 5 hr XC
CFI time required before you can prep another CFI - 24 months and 200 hours.
Keep CFI endorsment records for - 3 YEARS
New category and class for CFI requires - 15 HOURS PIC TIME
Helicopter or ME instructor is required to have - 5 HOURS PIC MAKE AND MODEL
CFI duty limits - 8 HOURS IN 24 HOURS
Mx log for rebuilt engine must include - PREVIOUS ADs
Voice recorder - 30 minutes
Substantially affected by alteration or repair requires pilot signoff before - PAX ONBOARD
100 hour inspection required - carry PASSENGERS for hire (or giving FLIGHT INSTRUCTION)
If you do 100 hr inspection early, next one is due - 100 HOURS.
Inoperative instrument or equipment not hazard - PLACARD 'INOPERATIVE', repairs DEFERRED INDEFINITELY
Responsibility maintaining airworthiness condition - owner or operator.
Responsible for AD - owner or operator
ATP requires FI recommendation only when - applying for type rating
(*) Night commercial ops - 3 to-n-ldg within 90d - same category, class type (if type rating)
Can carry PAX w/o night currency - up to 1 HOUR PAST SUNSET
Aircraft lighting required - AT SUNSET
SIC can log instrument time when - controlling by reference to instruments
Required alternative airport preflight - IFR or not in vicinity.
Life jackets - when not within gliding distance FOR HIRE
(**) to do safety pilot duty - requires private license in category and class
(**) Certification and medical required when acting as a safety pilot?
Inspect transponder - 24 months
Inspect ELT - 12 months (~at the annual?)
(*) Below Class B or within Class D - 200 KT speed limit
Below 10,000' or IN Class B - 250 KT
SWET31 (cruise altitudes) - South or West MAGNETIC COURSE
Right of way - BGTAR - Balloons, Gliders, Towing incl Air refueling, Airships, Regular engines.
Daylight VFR fuel reserves - 30 minutes
(*) Night VFR fuel reserves - 45 minutes
O2 rules - above 12,500 crew more than 30 mins, above 14,000 crew; above 15,000 everybody
(**) E goes up to - 14,500 (continental control zone) or "overlaying controlled airspace" ?????
(**) Class C shelf at 1200 AGL minimum (AIM 3-2-4)
(**) Class C shelf - at and below 1200
Wake turbulence separation from large aircraft - 6 miles.
Corpus Cristi under 1200 shelf, but also 700 magenta ????
freezing rain above - ice pellets
(*) warm front fog - evaporation of precipitation
METAR w/6 parts - fog up to 5/8 mile, mist more than 5/8 mile up to 6 miles
which is lowest ceiling? - Vertical Visibility at 600'


(*) Rapid accel gives an illusion of being NOSEUP.
OVERCOME spatial disorientation - reference instruments.
Haze makes things look farther away.
Dark adaptation impaired above 5000 MSL.
Hypoxia is result of - reduced barometric pressure (oxygen % stays the same).
Oxygen recommended at night - above 5000 MSL
ANEMIC hypoxia - leaking exhaust manifold.
ADM introduced as soon as student is ABLE TO CONTROL basic manuevers (first quarter).
ADM defined - Systematic approach, results in COURSE OF ACTION
Aeronautical Decision Making (ADM) Risk ELEMENTS - PILOT, Aircraft, Environment, Mission.
Risk MANAGEMENT, as part of ADM relies on - SA, problem recognition, good judgement
ADM step - identify personal attitudes hazardous to flight.
ADM student should take Self-Assessment Hazardous Attitude Inventory Test
(*) Experienced pilot dangerous tendencies - peer pressure, scud, loss of SA, inadequate fuel reserves.
Hazardous attitudes affecting ADM process - antiauthority, impulsivity, resignation.
Hazardous attitudes? TAKE AN ANTIDOTE.
Reduce stress in the cockpit by - assessing one's personal life.
To MANAGE cockpit stress - try to relax and think rationally.
DECIDE six elements - Detect, Estimate, Choose, Identify, Do, and Evaluate.
Dark adaption impaired - altitude above 5000'
(*) Local Advisory Service - FSS on airport

FAA and ATC Operations

Transponder required - ALL AIRSPACE AT ABOVE 10,000 below Class A
Request no transponder - 1 HOUR PRIOR
ATC transponder used for how long after inspection - 24 months
(*) Class B airspace requires - two-way radio comm and altitude encoding transponder
(*) Encoding transponder required - over or in Class C airspace.
Flashing white light from tower - go back to starting point
VFR more than 3000 AGL - SWET (South or West fly at Even Thousands + 500)
When operating as PIC require paperwork - pilot certificate and medical
Add on CFI for new category and class requires minimum hours of - 15 hours
Replace the Transponder battery when? - 1 hour cummulative use
flight through restricted area - prior authorization from agency
VFR in MOA - exercise caution (no permission required)
Light aircraft behind heavy wake turbulence, enroute - 6 miles
Large turbin min pattern altitdue - 1500 AGL
(*) Class D&E Special VFR at night - equiped for instrument flight
Unicom at a control tower airport - 122.95
Determining course measurements, lines of longitude and course vary.
Tri-color VASI Amber over Green over Red.
"Taxi-way directional sign" indications taxiways leading out of intersection.
"Runway location sign" indicates directions to take-off runway.
(**) "Destination sign" indicates direction to exit-taxiway from runway.
VASI - obstruction clearance out to 4 NM.
PCL (Pilot Controlled Lighting) - 3 clicks low. 5 clicks medium.
Enter traffic pattern - 45 to downwind MIDFIELD
During arrival, monitor communications - from 10 miles out.
When diverting to alternate - rule of thumb and go ASAP.
Dallas-FtWorth? VORTAC - needs a square box in label to indicate HWAS.
Satellite airport w/o tower - 2-way comm required but NOT for "landing clearance".
Class D goes away after tower operation ceases for the day.
(*) Special VFR at night - requires IFR equipped (pilot and plane).
Hold a VFR flight plan after ETD - for 1 hour
Encoding transponder and DME - flight plan /A
Prior to commercial glider - 25 hour glider pilot, 100 flights as PIC
To use CFIG to prep new CFIGs - 24 months and 80 hours glider training.
NDBs frequency 190-535 kHz (below AM band)
VOT test indication - 180 degrees TO.
Addison airport - Class D below shelf of Class B.
Alert area - no requirements, be careful.
Class B - radii at 5, 10, 20 miles
glider flight review - 1 hour, 3 flights to TRAFFIC PATTERN ALTITUDE
prior to solo - BOTH logbook and student certificate endorsed


(*) middle clouds - 5000 to 23,000'
(*) warm front w/unstable air - cumiliform, turbulent, showery.
front waves from on - slow cold fronts, or stationary fronts.
warm front east of wave - cold front west of wave.
cold front occlusion - air ahead of warm front is warmer than air behind cold front
freezing rain - from more than 0 C into air less than 0 C.
(*) most rapid clear ice - cumiliform clouds
structural ice requires - visible moisture, airframe O C or colder
to make TNX - moist, unstable laps rate, lift action.
cumulus - updrafts. mature - rain at surface.
Hail 2) strong updrafts and liquid water, 4) mature stage, 5) hail thrown outward.
avoid sshear - horizontal 40 KT per 150 miles
(*) ASOS "$" - needs maintenance
ASOS - necessary to generate METAR reports
TAF "+" or - modifies apply to precip only
fronts, pressures, circulation - Aviation Area Forecast (text)
in ALabama area forecast - MVFR
in area forecast, no visiblity implies - greater than 6 miles
Surface Analysis charts - pressure gradients.
(*) freezing lapse rate - 2 C / 1000'
clouds dewpoint spread - 2.5 C / 1000, 4 F / 1000'
fog requires - high relative humidity
frontal waves form on - slow moving cold fronts
most common surface inversion due to - terrestrial radiation
no winds forecast within - 1500 of station elevation
Lat & Long - lines of longitude cross equator at right angles
preheating the aircraft during cold-ops - cockpit, as well as engine
danger of terrain turbulence - leeward site flying upwind
Warm front in-flight hazard: precipitation induced fog.
Big 5-choice METAR question: Fog reported only if vis < 5/8 mile. Ceiling NOT desginated with "C". MIST repoted only if vis 5/8 mile up to 6 miles.
WX depiction det'n - above or below VFR.
On WX depiction - clear in smooth lines is MVFR, shaded inside smooth is IFR.
On WX depiction - western Iowa - '' (double quotes) means drizzle.
Surface Chart isobars spaced at 4 millibar intervals.
MAX INTENSITY microburst winds last 2-4 minutes.
(*) Expected DURATION of microburst 15 minutes
Microburst downdraft - 6000 fpm
4-panel Prog charts - filled area is continuous precipitation
4-panel prog charts - ** means CONTINUOS SNOW in northern UT
4-panel prog charts - dashed line with number is 12,000 freezing level in FL
(*) Severe weather charts, moderate dashed lines - 6 to 10% coverage of thunderstorms
SIGMET - severe icing, severe or extreme non-TNX turbulence, dust storms, standstorms, ash giving vis < 3 mi.
CONVECTIVE SIGMET - tornadoe, embedded TNX, hail > 3/4"
Intensity trend of a front on Surface Analysis Chart, between bumps - space: building, line: dissipating.
Surface Analysis Chart -..-..-.. means - squal line
Weather depiction chart infinity sign means haze
Weather depiction chart colored in circle means - overcast
Weather depiction chart unshaded area enclosed by a smooth line - MVFR 3-5 vis and/or 1000-3000 ceiling.
continuous snow - **
intermittent snow - *
continuous rain - .. (two dots)
.\/ (dot over triangle) - rain showers
Chicago forecast - CLDS/WX valid til 0800
Michigan forecast - 1000' OVC in mist (BR), 3-5 STATUTE miles
SLIGHT - thunderstorms, but small in number or low coverage
(*) AIRMETS - mountain obscuration
scalloped line around Florida - 1-3000' ceiling and/or 3-5 mi continuous precipitation
Weather Prog Chart, hat over 18 means turbulence sfc to 18,000'
Sig Weather Chart - used to determine areas to avoid
Wx Depiction Chart - determine above or below VFR minimums
infinity sign means - HAZE
equal sign (=) means - FOG
Radar Summary heavy box - SVR WX WATCH
Radar Summary - intensity and movement of precipitation
Stability charts - large NUMERATOR means STABLE
Stability charts - large DENOMINATOR means SATURATED
Winds, temps AND spreads - look to the constant pressure charts
Constant pressure charts - 5000' 850 mbar, 10000' 700 mbar, 18000' 500 mbar
TAF from OKC - becoming OVC at 2000.
(*) For freezing lvl and areas of icing - AIRMET or SIGMET
Fronts, pressure systems, circulation patterns - Aviation Area Forecast
FAs - issues 3 per day; 12 hr forecast + 6 hr categorical (18 hr total)
(*) Textual notation for tops of TNX in written radar report
Radar Summary Chart - R is rain. RW is rain showers. + means increasing.
4-panel Prog charts - filled dashes is continuous precipitation
4-panel prog charts - ** means CONTINUOS SNOW in northern UT
4-panel prog charts - dashed line with number is 12,000 freezing level in FL
(*) Severe weather charts, moderate dashed lines - 6 to 10% coverage of thunderstorms
APCHHG - means "winds 35-50 kts"
(*) cold front occlusion - air ahead of warm front is warmer than air behind overtaking cold front.
(*) High - descending outward clockwise.
develop convective - cool air must sink to force warm air upward, but NOT cold air surrounding warm air.
radar report - max tops @162 degrees 100 nm.

Aircraft Performance

ME blue line on a/s indicator - best RATE of climb
Piston engine Vmc higher altitude - Vmc DECREASES with altitude
Allowing bank toward the bad engine INCREASES Vmc.
Banking toward the bad engine increases Vmc about 3 knots per degree of bank.
(*) Critical engine is - left due to P on right.
Rearward CG makes Vmc - HIGHER.
V2 - takeoff safety speed
Stall speed increases when - HIGH GROSS weight and FORWARD CG.
CG too far aft - FLAT SPIN
Forward CG - HIGHER stall speed, MORE LONGITUDINAL stability.
Recovery from stall is more difficult with REARWARD CG.
Stall speed highest - heavy and forward CG (makes the tail do even more down force).
(*) Forward CG shift - decrease cruise speed, increase stall speed (both bad).
CG deviations - "Too far forward wrecks performance. Too far back wrecks controllability."
Phugoid oscillations same speed - easy to control.
Phugoid oscillations varying speed - constant angle of attack.
RATE of climb - excess POWER.
(*) Lift during bank - has less vertical component.
ANGLE of climb - excess THRUST.
LIFT vector is perpendicular to - RELATIVE WIND
Induced drag - inversely proportional to square of airspeed
Change in velocity of a mass - THRUST
Poor controllability on go-around? - high power, low spd, trimmed for full flaps.
Reduce wing load factor - at or BELOW maneuvering speed.
Operate easily and withstand stresses - manueverability
Most desirable stability - positive dynamic
Spiral instability from - strong directional static stability, weak dihedral effect
Service ceiling is when blue line (best rate) gives - 50 fpm
Loss of 1 engine decreases climb rate by - 80 %
(*) increase humidity - longer take-off distance, air is less dense
Wingtip vortex - Outward, Upward, around each tip. "OH! YOU Know this one?!"
(*) Converting from a true heading to a true course, SUBTRACT a RIGHT WIND CORRECTION angle
(*) Climbout problems - do VVI calculation first, distance calc may be unecessary
(*) Added Wt / Prior Wt = (CGlimit - CGcurrent) / (Station - CGlimit)
For prop/throttle order, remember "Toilet Paper" TP-PT. On level off, do throttle back, then prop speed back (steepen pitch, or shift into higher gear). On descent, push prop fast, then throttle back (don't "chug" the engine like being in too high of a gear with steep prop pitch).
When decreasing power - increase PROP RPM first.
Pre-ignition is EARLY combustion. vs. Detonation is INSTANT combustion.
propeller efficiency - ratio of thrust to brake horsepower
blade angle of propellor - chord line compared to plane of rotation
constant power and IAS, if OAT gets colder - TAS decreases, true altitude decreases
(*) Prop twist is to maintain - constant AOA
CG determined by - total moments divided by total weight
Decrease radius of turn and rate of turn how? - steepen bank and decrease airspeed
nose returns to position after pressing control stick forward - static stability
carburetor icing - air temp between -7C and 21C with visible moisure or high humidity
fly a plane slower in ground effect - interference of ground with airflow patterns around aircraft
RATE of climb depends on - excess power
zero angle of attack, pressure on top of wing - less than atmospheric
critical angle of attack that causes stall dependent on - design of the wing
dual ignition system also provides for - better combustion
(*) Critical AOA is function of (only) - design of airfoil
Most desirable stability - positive dynamic stability
provide information (primary) for pitch control during st-n-lvl flight - ALTIMETER
(*) SUPPORTING instruments for constant speed climb - altitude and turn coord
High aspect ratio - low stall speed
High aspect ratio - decreased drag, especially high AOA
to correct course to a point - parallel, then correct to desired location on track
(*) track ADF - pointer to windward side of TAIL position
(*) students dive during left turns - because nose looks like it's rising
landing - align longitudinal axes
primary purpose of slow flight - become familiar, and see rapidity
operate easily, resist stress to airframe - MANEUVERING SPEED
Vne - red line "never exceed"
Vno - top of green, bottom of yellow - max structural cruising ("normal ops")
Va - maneuvering speed (only one not on dial)
(**) why adverse yaw - increased parasitic, or increased induced on down aileron?
spin entry - after a FULL stall
stall tip first - swept back wing
Fowler flap - CLmax increases, least drag, greatest pitch moment
Least pitching moment - split flap
Ground effect - height less than 1/2 wing span
purpose of slow flight - sense of feel, use of controls properly
landing ground effect - decrease in stability and nose up change in moments.

Glider-only performance material below
Glider spoilers - DECREASE LIFT (not about final approach)
twice the glider's weight - at 60 degrees
auto-launch glider - 15 deg at 50', 30 deg at 100', 45 deg at 200'
glider final - 50% above stall plus 1/2 estimated wind
strong thermal on final - close spoilers and increase airspeed.
join thermaling - same direction as 1st glider.
glider cg hook w/winch - prevents pitch up if line breaks
glider cg hook w/aero - causes pitch up
release in low tow - snap back and to wring strike glider
landing in tow - land before tow plane, no spoilers
passing through lift w/o working - use min sink speed
turning base to final, strong wind gradient - undershoot or stall
winch speed - 44 MPH (placard - headwind - 10 at 200' - 5 for gradient)
winch w/tow rope - start glider to downwind side
winch tow - oscillations at top of tow insufficient elevator
ridge soaring - reverse turns away from ridge into wind
off field - land UPHILL before upwind.
ensure safe off-field landing - 50% above stall + 1/2 wind speed
misjudge rate of sink - ballooning

Aircraft Systems

Blue line on twin a/s indicator is best RATE of climb, one engine out.
Vmc is min airspeed, engine out, to MAINTAIN HEADING. Level height not ensured.
gyroscopic precession (of prop) - any yaw results in pitching moment.
pre-heat cockpit as well as engine
pitot ram and static blocked results in - no VARIATIONS of indicated airspeed (not zero).
Mag DEVIATION - metal in the airplane
ACCELERATE E or W heading - compas shows a turn NORTH
Compass N.O.S.E. - Heading North, compose Opposes initial turn, Stop turns Early
Compass W.E.A.N. - traveling West or East, if Accelerate, shows a turn to the NORTH
Northern hemisphere rollout going south - pass south by the number of degrees of latitude
max cruising speed - top green arc
(*) lower limit of white arc - power off stall speed, landing config
lower limit of green arc - stall speed, specified config
not on a/s indicator - MANEUVERING speed
altitude and temp - colder than standard, aircraft is LOW (think of being cold and dead)
broken static line in cabin PRESSURIZED - altimeter reads LOW
broken static line in cabin UNPRESSURIZED - altimeter reads HIGh
alternator vs. generator - alternator provides more power at lower RPM
oxygen - only AVIATION type
(*) in general aviation - constant flow O2
rebreath bag - to conserve oxygen
crankcase breather lines - succeptible to ice in breather line
low grade fuel - detonation
to promper drain water from fuel - drain BOTH strainer drain and fule tank sumps
fuel injected vs. carbureted - just as succeptible to impact icing.
constant speed prop + carb icing - decrease in manifold pressure
fixed pitch prop + carb icing - decrease in RPM
blade angle - chord line and plane of rotation
prop slip - geometric pitch vs. effective pitch
(**) prop twist to keep same - angle of attack
prop slip stream - left around vertical axis (fin), right around longitude axes (hits stab)
left engine is critical
(*) left engine is critical because - greater P-factor moment arm on right engine descending prop blad

Flight Maneuvers

Most BANK on downwind legs
Most CRAB on crosswind legs
(*) Four flight fundamentals maneuvering an aircraft: Straight-and-level flight, Turns, Climbs, Descents.
When bank constant, decreasing airspeed - higher rate, radius decrease (think terrain avoidance).
Prevent landing side loads by - longitude axes parallel direction of motion.
(*) If ROUND OUT HIGH on landing - student is FOCUSING TOO CLOSE.
If focusing TOO FAR away - inaction, resulting in nose first contact.
(*) When rectangular couse - less than 90 turns both ends of upwind leg.
When turns around a point - steepest bank on downwind run. (Enter downwind with steepest desired bank.)
(*) When turns around a point - equal bank on two crosswind legs.
When S-turns - greatest crab into wind on crosswind legs.
(*) When S-turns, small upwind semicircle and not completing the turn before coming back across the road - because semicircle is started with too much bank.
8s-on-pylons if wing reference line shift behind pylon - too HIGH (let aircraft fly forward, shallow bank, get lower, slow rate of turn, less rudder required).
Objective of cross-control stall demo - SHOW effect of incorrect, and importance of coordinated.
When accelerated stall in steep turn - airflow masked wing stalls first (inside wing if skidding).
Lazy 8 required most control input - at SLOWEST SPEED.
What results in slipping turn - increasing rate of turn WITHOUT USING RUDDER.
With no attitude indicator, rely on what to determine pitch? - airspeed and altimeter
(*) 8s-on-pylons yawing left, ball to right - picture #2, too high
a skid shows ball on outside of turn (/ .) or (. \) - too much rudder
a slip shows ball on inside of turn (/. ) or ( .\) - too little rudder

In a RIGHT descending turn, EXCESSIVE LEFT RUDDER results in a slip.
(*) Misuse of rudder during Pylon-8s (assuming you are keeping wing on pylon), then indicator shows Too much bank if too high, too much yaw if too low.
Top of Lazy-8: bank, airspeed, altitude, pitch.
Lazy-8 bank too steep? Complete 180deg heading change too fast, airspeed will be too fast.
8s on pylons - (misuse of rudder), too much bank ball slipping inward means too high.
Straight and level flight, ALTIMETER is the PRIMARY PITCH instrument. (This conflicts with military definitions which include attitude and throttle).


ATP requires FI recommendation on when - applying for type rating
Night commercial operations - 3 to & ldng w/in 90d - same category, class, type (if type rating)
Can carry pax w/o night currency - up to one hour past sunset
Aircraft lighting required - at sunset
SIC can log instrument when - controlling by reference to instruments
alternative airport preflight - IFR or not in vicinity
life jackets when - not within gliding distance FOR HIRE
to do safety pilot flight - private in the category and class
inspect transponder - 24 months
inspect ELTs - 12 months
Below Class B or within Class D - 200 knots
Below 10K or IN Class B - 250 knots
SWET31 - south or west MAGNETIC course even thousands
LE slot - delays stall to higher AOA
Stall AOA is independent of speed of airflow over wings
Which aircraft will generate highest lift? - highest aspect ratio
STEEP BANK for ground manuevers is - GOING DOWNWIND
(*) Angle of bank equal - when CROSSWIND
misuse of rudder - 1 if above, 2 if below
Chandelle initial bank too shallow - stall aircraft before reaching 180 degrees.
Chandelle max pitch - 90 turn point
Chandelle during 2nd half - constant pitch, changing bank
Chandelle too steep bank, result: 180 early & pitch too high.
Unusual attitude, how determine attitude before recovery? - airspeed and altimeter
Density altitude - 5950 feet.
Glide distance - 13 miles.
Glide distance - 11.5 miles.
Total landing distance - 1175 feet.
CG if 60 pounds are removed - Station 85.1
Vmc is the highest when - CG farthest aft
Move CG from aft to forward - decrease cruising speed, increase stalling speed
Forward CG and power/altitude maintained - IAS is slower than if aft CG
Flying from HI to LOW pressure - wind from the left, increasing
(*) Advancing warm front unstable air - cumuliform clouds, turbulent air, showery precip
Stable air - restricted visibility
(*) Troposhere lapse rate - 2 degrees C per 1000'
Temp inversion near the surface - wind shear, sudden loss of airspeed.
Tornadoes occur with - steady state TNX, cold fronts.
PIREP - OVC base and tops at 7,200 MSL and 8,900 MSL
Uncontrolled, night, below 1200' - less than 3 miles but more than 1 mile, in traffic pattern and 1/2 mile
Class C shelf - 10 miles
MOA - separate IFR from mil ops
Military training routes below 1500 AGL - IR or VR and 4 digits.
Close VFR flight plan before SAR - 1/2hour after E.T.A.
Yellow demarcation bar marking - displaced threshold
Suspended CFI, may not - add any rating
Certified by CFI from whom received - All flight training, sim tng, gnd tng
CFI signoff for solo flight - given tng in type of aircraft involved
Tower steady red - give way, continue circling.
Parachute when - ± 30 pitch
Transponder checked and tested - 24 months.
(*) Float type carburetor - INCREASE AIR VELOCITY in throat of venturi
(**) Carburetor - Expansion of air or compression of air?
stall occurs below white arc why? - pitot INSTALLATION error
Climb - 23 NM and 1044 DST
Calc wind vector - 035 deg and 40 knots.
(*) C to A on the wind triangle - wind vector
(*) True to Course - SUBTRACT RIGHT WIND ANGLE (backwards from the normal study example)
Calc MH and GS - 323 and 177 KTs
What is relative bearing when 180 bearing to station - 130 deg.
(*) MH + RB = MB (the picture provided on the exam will only confuse you. trust the math!)
RMI 2 shows - 295 deg
Elevation of towers by McCampbell? airport - 382 feet MSL
Gnoss airport to Rio Vista to avoid obstacles - 3,200 MSL (section big numbers)
(**) Big numbers with subscript are Min safe or Max obstacle?

Created by brian. Last Modification: Tuesday 26 of October, 2010 09:38:57 EDT by brian.